Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI)

CAI may be due to one of these alone or due to a mix of the two:

A) Functional Ankle Instability (FAI)

B) Structural Ankle Instability, also known as Mechanical Ankle Instability (MAI)

Hupperets MD, Verhagen EA, van Mechelen W. Effect of unsupervised home based proprioceptive training on recurrences of ankle sprain: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2009 Jul 9;339:b2684.

Hupperets MD, Verhagen EA, Heymans MW, Bosmans JE, van Tulder MW, van Mechelen W. Potential savings of a program to prevent ankle sprain recurrence: economic evaluation of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2010 Nov;38(11):2194-200.